Solid Waste Management

     Rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to the generation of huge generation of garbage and waste in the urban areas over the past few decades, that just handling this Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has assumed the proportion of a major organizational, financial and environmental challenge.The most vital problem faced by any urban local body in the state today is Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM).

Solid Waste Management Rules 2016 & SWM Policy

To address the growing concern regarding the safe collection, transportation, scientific processing and safe disposal of the Solid waste generated, the Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change devised the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 which clearly mandates the framing of State policy on Solid Waste Management and the framing of Solid Waste Management plan by each and every Urban Local body.

Tamil Nadu State Policy on Solid Waste Management was notified on 24.08.18. All ULBs have framed & notified the Bye laws with provisions for user fee & spot fines. Solid Waste Management policy and Action plan notified in the Gazette by all ULBs and also the TNPCB has issued authorization under SWM Rules, 2016 to all ULBs

About 6667 MT of solid waste is being generated in 14 Corporations (except Chennai) and 121 Municipalities. Out of which wet waste is 3803 MT and Dry waste is 2864 MT.  Solid Waste Management activities such as source segregation and door to door collection, transportation and processing of Solid Waste are effectively executed in all 135 ULBs by using Battery operated vehicles (BOVs), Light commercial Vehicles (LCVs) and other equipments.

 The Wet fraction of the Solid Waste are scientifically processed and disposed by processing in the Decentralized Micro Compost Centres (MCCs), Onsite Composting Centres (OCCs), Windrow composting plants, Vermi composting plants and Biomethanation plants established in the ULBs.

 Similarly, the dry waste is being collected and stored at Resource Recovery Centres and disposed to the identified vendors for recycling. 235 Resource Recovery Centres are established in ULBs to collect and store the dry waste for further processing. The non recyclable and combustible waste is separated and transported to nearby cement plants and also to the incinerators available for proper scientific disposal.

 The E waste is collected once in a month and stored in Resource Recovery Centers before disposing to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) authorized vendors.

Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste collection points are identified and earmarked in all ULBs.

 Bio mining process is done to remove the legacy waste from dump yards to prevent further environmental degradation.

Wet Waste Processing Methods

        (a) Bio-Methanation Plants

47 Bio-Methanation Plants with total capacity of 197 TPD has been established in 11 Corporations & 27 Municipalities at a project cost of
Rs.37.42 crore under various schemes, to process the food waste, vegetable market waste, slaughter house waste etc. The capacity of plants ranges from 1 TPD to 10 TPD. The biogas is used in Gasifier Crematorium and the electricity generated from some of the plants are being used for illuminating the lights in the compost yards, MCCs and STPs.

        (b) Decentralized Micro Compost Centre:

Decentralized approach is being implemented in all the Corporations and Municipalities after demarcating the ULB into service areas comprising of 4 to 5 wards. A Micro Composting Centre is established in each service area for processing the wet waste and converting into manure. This encourages the collection and disposal mechanism of wet waste in a decentralized manner which helps to minimise the secondary transportation cost and also to have bin free streets.

At present 804 Nos of Micro Compost Centres for handling the biodegradable waste of 3130 TPD are sanctioned of which 691 Nos of MCCs with the capacity of 2649 TPD are put to use in all Corporations and Municipalities. The manure generated from MCCs are distributed to farmers / households at free of cost.

       (C) Windrows composting

        258 TPD of wet waste in 36 ULBs (5 Corporations and 31 Municipalities) is being processed through Windrows Composting.

       (d) Onsite Composting

Onsite Composting Centers (OCCs) are constructed in parks and gardens to process the horticultural waste. So far 876 OCCs are functioning in 14 Corporations & 121 Municipalities handling 416 TPD.

Incineration Plant

Incineration plants are proposed in feasible ULBs to process the combustible dry waste such as Plastics, Clothes and other combustible materials. Incineration plants with capacity like 10 TPD, 25 TPD and 50 TPD have been sanctioned in Erode, Salem, Vellore, Thanjavur, ThoothukudiDindugul& Tirunelveli Corporations and Karur, Tambaram, Idappadi and Mettupalayam Municipalities on cluster basis at an estimated cost of 28.73 Crore for the years 2019-20& 2020-21.

Bio Mining and Bio capping of legacy waste

Reclamation of dump yard suffused with legacy waste is reclaimed through bio mining.Bio mining of old and abandoned dump sites have been taken up in 11 Corporations

and 87 Municipalities to remove the 84.17 Lakh Cu.m of legacy waste through bio remediation process at a total estimate cost of `530.37 Crores under Swachh Bharat Mission and Smart City Mission.

Bio Mining has been completed in Kumbakonam, Pammal, Sembakkam, Poonammalle,Chidambaram,Pallavaram, Anakaputhur, Arani, Idappadi, Karur, Kangeyam, Bhavani, Mettupalayam,Sathyamangalam,Vellakoil&BodinayakanurMunicipalities by clearing 8,64,393Cu.m of legacy waste so far and 85.29 acres of land has been reclaimed. Bio mining in 82 ULBs are in various stages.

Centre for Environmental studies, Guindy Campus, Anna University Chennai is engaged as Third Party inspection agency in 96 ULBs for guidance in technical aspects of Bio-mining works.

Scientific Bio capping of legacy waste completed in Madurai, Coimbatore Salem and Tirunelveli Corporations.

Plastic Ban

Government order issued vide G.O.(Ms)No.84, Environment & Forests(EC2) department, dated 25.06.2018 in accordance with the announcement of The Hon’ble Chief Minister under Rule 110 to the effect that one time use and throw away plastics irrespective of thickness is banned with effect from 01.01.2019 under Environment (Protection) Act,1986 in order to ensure prevention of storage, supply, transport, sale, distribution and use of one time use plastics such as plastic carry bags, plastic sheets used for food wrapping, spreading on dining table etc., plastic plates, plastic coated tea cups and plastic tumbler, water pouches , sachets and packets, plastic straw and plastic flags irrespective of their thickness.

All the Government offices became free of one time plastic before 15.08.2018 and all the institutions such as Schools, colleges, hospitals and temples became free of one time plastic before 15.09.2018 well before the target of 01.01.2019.

Bye-laws including provision for spot fines have been framed in accordance with Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 by all the ULBs and notified in the Gazette.

Continuous IEC activities are being carried out in Public places, Schools, Households to eradicate the plastic. Rallies and awareness campaigns are organized for the school students, College students and the Public at large to detail the ill-effects of the usage of plastics.

The ULBs have conducted exhibitions with the active participation of the Public regarding the availability of alternates to plastic products and propagate its usage.Training programmes were conducted on the making of eco-friendly alternative products with the active coordination of SHGs. Usage of stainless steel tumblers instead of plastic cups, steel containers instead of plastic containers, cloth bags/ec-ofriendly bags made out of starch products instead of plastic carry bags to get commodities from shops, taking our own containers to buy food from hotels,avoiding the usage of plastic straws are some of the habits that are inculcated in the minds of the people to achieve the objective of complete eradication of plastic usage.

Surprise raids are conducted in all the ULBs with special emphasis on fruit & vegetable stalls, Flower vendors, Chicken and Mutton stalls to seize such type of plastics. Up to December 2019, 110903 numbers of raids have been conducted in all ULBs and total quantities of 1110 MT of plastics have been seized and5.48 Crores of fine has been collected.

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM – Urban)

Swachh Bharath Mission was launched by the Ministry of Urban development on 02.10.2014 for a period of five years. The objectives of the Swachh Bharath Mission are:

  • Elimination of open defecation,
  • Eradication of Manual scavenging
  • Modern & scientific Municipal solid waste management,
  • To effect behavioral change regarding healthy sanitation practices,
  • Generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health
  • Capacity augmentation for urban local Bodies and to create enabling environment for private sector participation in capital expenditure and operational expenditure (Capex &Opex).

 The Government of Tamil Nadu is implementing Swachh Bharat Mission with components such as construction of Individual Household Latrine (IHHL), Community Toilet (CT), Solid Waste Management (SWM), Information Education & Communication (IEC) activities, Capacity Building, Administrative and Office Expenditure (A & OE). In this regard, a State Level High Powered Committee has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Additional Chief Secretary to Government, MA&WS department to sanction and monitor the implementation of the projects with the following funding pattern.

Component Funding Pattern
GOI Share State Share
IHHL  4000/Number  2000/Number
CT 39200/seat  34300/seat
SWM 35% 55%
IEC 75% 25%
CB and A&OE 75% 25%

 Individual House Hold Latrines (IHHL)

 With a vision to eradicate the open defecation, construction of Individual house hold toilets has been the main component of the Swachh Bharat Mission and 5,05,282 IHHLs had been completed.

Community Toilets

Community Toilets are constructed for providing sanitation to the households without land for the construction of IHHL. 21894 seats had been completed.

Solid Waste Management

So far 6438 works have been sanctioned under solid waste management component in 664 ULBs viz; 15 Corporations, 121 Municipalities 528 Town Panchayats at a total estimated cost of2185 Crore.

Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities

In order to inculcate and sustain activities related to curbing of open defecation practices, promoting source segregation and encouraging home composting, advocating clean and healthy sanitation practices, 2846 animators, 230 Supervisors and 11 Coordinators have been engaged in all ULBs initially for a period of 3 years and extended further.