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Tiruchirapalli, rock city is situated on the banks of river cavery. Trichy is a fine blend of temples and monuments and is a great travel destination. Dominated by the granite rock soaring 84 meters into the skyline, Trichy also hosts the Golden Rock Locomotive Workshop, an Ordinance Factory, and NIT (National Institute of Technology) – Trichirapalli was for some time under the Mughal rule. Which was put to an end by the Vijayanagar rulers. The Nayaks, the Governors of Vijayanagar Empire, ruled this area till A.D. 1736. It was Viswanatha Nayaka who built the present day Teppakulam and the Fort. The Nayak dynasty came to an end during the days of Meenakshi. The Muslims rules this region again with the aid of either the French or the English armies, for some years. Tiruchirapalli was under the rule of Chandra Sahib and Mohamed Ali. Finally the English brought Tiruchirapalli and other areas under their control. The district was then under the hegemony of British for about 150 years till the independence of India.

Tiruchirappalli is one of the most famous temple town of Tamilnadu, also called Tiruchi, this is the fourth largest town of Tamilnadu. The important temples are Rock Fort Temple, Ranganathaswamy Temple and Jambukeshwaram Temple. Tiruchi is linked with Chennai by air, rail and road and has many good hotels for visitor’s stay St.Joseph’s college can boast of its alumini being the President of India-namely Dr.A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, and Dr. R. Venkatraman the former president who came from National college. This city has given great Tamil scholars whose contributions to the Tamil literature have been very significant.

From Distance (KM)
Coimbatore 206
Chennai 330
Bangalore 331
Vijayawada 770
Hyderabad 877
Visakhapatnam 1120
Pune 1366
Nagpur 1434
Mumbai 1542
Bhopal 1823
 Historical populations 
Year Pop.  %±
1871 76,530
1881 84,449 10.3%
1891 90,609 7.3%
1901 104,721 15.6%
1911 123,512 17.9%
1921 120,422 -2.5%
1931 142,843 18.6%
1941 159,566 11.7%
1951 218,921 37.2%
1961 249,862 14.1%
1971 361,774 44.8%
1981 609,538 68.5%
1991 668,648 9.7%
2001 752,066 12.5%

Tiruchirapalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu. Uraiyur, which served as the capital of the Early Cholas from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD is a suburb of present-day Tiruchirapalli. The oldest human-built dam, Kallanai, was built by Karikala Cholan across the Kaveri River about 10 miles from Uraiyur.

The medieval history of Tiruchirapalli begins with the reign of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I who ruled over South India in the 6th century AD. Mahendravarman laid the foundation of the Rockfort which is regarded as the cultural symbol of the city and is one of the oldest surviving monuments in Tamil Nadu. Following the demise of the Pallavas in the 8th century AD, Tiruchirapalli was conquered by the Medieval Cholas under whom it served as a regional stronghold.

When the Chola Empire began to decline, Tiruchirapalli was conquered by the Pandyas who ruled from 1216 to 1311 when they were defeated by Malik Kafur. The victorious armies of the Sultanate are believed to plundered and ravaged the kingdom. According to a local legend, the idol of Lord Ranganatha in the Hindu temple of Sirangam was saved from destruction by transporting it out of the city. Tiruchirapalli was ruled by the Delhi Sultanate and the Madurai Sultanate from 1311 to 1378 when it was annexed by the Vijayanagar Empire. Tiruchirapalli remained a part of the Vijayanagar Empire and its successor, the Madurai Nayak Dynasty from 1378 to 1736. Under the Madurai Nayak kingdom, Tiruchirapalli was an important stronghold in the wars against the Thanjavur Marathas and later, Chanda Sahib. It served as the capital of the kingdom from 1616 to 1634 and from 1665 to 1736. In 1736, the last Madurai Nayak ruler Meenakshi committed suicide and Tiruchirapalli was conquered by Chanda Sahib who ruled the kingdom from 1736 to 1740 when he was captured and killed by the Thanjavur Marathas.

Summer temperature : 41.10°C (maximum) 36.40°C (minimum)
Winter temperature : 21.31°C (maximum) 18.60°C (minimum)

Woraiyur , a part of present day Tiruchirappalli, was the capital city of Cholas from 300 B.C. onwards. This is supported by archaeological evidences and ancient literatures. There are also literary sources which tell that Woraiyur continued to be under the control of Cholas even during the days of Kalabhra interregnum (A.D. 300 – 575).

Trichy Road Later, Woraiyur along with the present day Tiruchirappalli and its neighboring areas came under the control of Mahendra Varma Pallava I, who ascended the throne in A.D. 590. Till A.D. 880, according to the inscriptions, this region was under the hegemony of either the Pallvas or the Pandyas. It was in A.D. 880, Aditya Chola brought a downfall to the Pallava dynasty. From that time onwards Tiruchirappalli and its region became a part of Greater Cholas. In A.D. 1225 the area was occupied by the Hoysulas. Afterwards, it came under the rule of later Pandyas till the advent of Mughal Rule.

Tiruchirappalli was for some time under the Mughal rule, which was put to an end by the Vijayanagar rulers. The Nayaks, the Governors of Vijayanagar empire, ruled this area till A.D. 1736. It was Viswanatha Nayaka who built the present day Teppakulam and the Fort. The Nayak dynasty came to an end during the days of Meenakshi.

The Muslims rules this region again with the aid of either the French or the English armies. For some years, Tiruchirappalli was under the rule of Chanda Sahib and Mohamed Ali. Finally the English brought Tiruchirappalli and other areas under their control. Soon after the area was ceded to East India Company as per the agreement at the eve of the Kanatic war, Tiruchirappalli district was formed under the the Collectorship of Mr. John (Junior) Wallace in 1801. The district was then under the hegemony of British for about 150 years till the independence of India.

“The centre of origin is variously placed in India, where there are historical traditions and remains indicating a highly developed iron culture. Hyderabad and Trichinopoly are considered by many to have been the centres of production of wootz….. This steel was noted for centuries, being carried by merchants from India to Damascus and Toledo..” Sir William gives the date of this origin of the Iron Age as 1400 to 1500 B.C.E

The well-known Trichinopoly cigars are chiefly manufactured from Tobacco grown outside the district at Dindigul. It was said that Winston Churchill developed a taste for the mildly aromatic Trichy cigar that was traded from Fort St George to Whitehall during 2nd World War

One famous landmark in Tiruchirapalli is the Rock Fort, a big outcrop of rock, 83 metres in height. It is the only such outcrop of its kind. Because of it Trichy is also called as Rock City. On top of it is the Ucchi Pillayar Koil, a temple dedicated to the Hindu god Vinayaka (Ganesh), from where one can enjoy a panoramic view of Tiruchirapalli. The temple was also used as a military fort by the Nayaks for some time. Trichy Over View

On the southern face of the rock are several beautifully-carved cave temples of the Pallava period. On the eastern side is Sri Nandrudayan Vinayakar Temple, with Ganesha as the main deity. A large-sized Ganesha and depictions of other rare deities can be seen in this temple, which hosts festivals every year during the Vinayaka Chathurthi (birthday of Ganesha). Many Carnatic musicians have given concerts in this famous shrine. Around the rock temple is a busy commercial region, mainly known for its textiles and Burma, China, Japan goods, known as Chatram. The Main Guard Gate is flooded on festive occasions such as Deepavali, Ramzan, Bakrid, Christmas, and Pongal.

Like many other places in Tamil Nadu, Tiruchirappalli has a legend. The city was named in the memory of a fight Lord Shiva had with a three-headed demon named Trisiras.

Tiruchirappalli actually means “city of the three-headed demon”. Tiruchirappalli,(Trichy, Tiruchy, Thiruchi) the fourth largest city in the state was a citadel of the Early Cholas which later fell to the Pallavas. But the Pallavas never really managed to retain control of this strategic city and lost it to the Pandyas several times. This tug of war finally ended when the Cholas reasserted themselves in the 10th century. Trichy continued to be in their possession until the decline of the empire after which it became a Vijayanagara stronghold. When this empire collapsed in 1565, Trichy came to be occupied in turn by the Nayaks of Madurai, the Marathas, the Nawabs of Carnatic, the French and finally the British. But it was under the Nayaks of Madurai that Trichy flourished and prospered in its own right and grew to be the city that it is today.

The historical city of Tiruchirappalli, popularly known as Trichi, is situated on the banks of the Kaveri River in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Lying at a distance of 320 km from Chennai (Madras) and 130 km from Madurai, this Chola Dynasty citadel, known for its profound wisdom of the Sangam Age, still carries the age-old aura about it. The present-day city, with a blend of glorious past and acclaimed divinity through the famous Dravidian temples, stands as a commercial and tourist hub of Tamil Nadu. The most famous land mark of this bustling town is the Rockfort Temple, a spectacular monument perched on a massive rocky out crop which rises abruptly from the plain to tower over the old city. Apart from the fort there are several churches, colleges and missions dating back to the 1760s.It is also famous for artificial diamonds, cigars, handloom cloth, glass bangles and wooden and clay toys. With its excellent infrastructural facilities Trichy will serve as a good base to see central Tamilnadu.

Trichy is famous for the number of Christian churches it has—it is said to have the greatest number of chapels in India. The most famous are Holy Redeemer’s Church (Sagayamatha Kovil), Our Lady of Lourdes Church(built by Jesuits) near Chatram bus stand, and The Cathedral in Melapudur(built by Jesuits), all more than a century and a half old. The most famous college in Trichy, St. Joseph’s College was also built by the Jesuits, and so was St. Joseph’s school,etc. Trichy also is famous for Arcot Nawab masjid (one of the oldest), with its large water storage tank (Ahail) Trichy Kaveri Bridge

Thus The city is of great antiquity and has been ruled by the Early Cholas, the Early Pandyas, Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Delhi Sultanate, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, the Carnatic state and the British at different times. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur which served as the capital of the Early Cholas is a suburb of Tiruchirapalli. Tiruchirapalli has a number of historical monuments, the Rockfort, Thiruvanaikaval and Srirangam being the most prominent among them.

The topology of Trichy is flat. It lies at an altitude of 78 m above sea level. The area of the city is 167.23 sq.kms while the urban agglomeration is spread over an area of 180 sq.kms. The river Cauvery flows along WNW-SSE direction through the city.

The city is divided into three parts: the Cantonment area to the south, the temples to the north and the bazaar in the centre of the city. Most of Tiruchirapalli’s hotels and government and post offices are situated in the cantonment while most of Tiruchirapalli’s temples are located in the north. The Rockfort and its temple are situated in the centre of the city and surrounded by a bazaar.

There are few hills located within the city, the prominent among them are Golden Rock, Rock Fort, Kajamalai and in Thiruverumbur. There are few reserve forests along the river Cauvery, located at the west and the north-west of the city. The southern and the south-western part of the district is dotted by several hills which are thought to be an offset of the Western Ghat. Eastern ghats also pass through the district. The soil here is considered to be very fertile. As two rivers flows through the city, the northern part of the city is more greener than other areas of the city.

Trichy has very hot climate, with humidity slightly above normal. The city experiences mild winters and humid summers. The timing of the monsoon in this part of the country has lately become unpredictable, with the rainy season starting from mid-October until early-November and the rains then extending until early or mid-January.

As of 2001, Trichy had a population of 7,52,066 within the corporation limits and the urban agglomeration had a population of 8,66,354. Recent estimates peg the population of Trichy city to be 10,27,436, while the urban agglomeration has a population of 13,39,534. Males constitute 49.97% of the population and females 50.03%. Trichy has an average literacy rate of 91.45%, and is among the highest literate cities in India. Male literacy is 94.17% and female literacy is 88.73%. In Trichy 9.59% of the population is under 6 years of age. The city’s population is predominantly Hindu (with both Saivaite and Vaishnavaite), and there are sizable population of Christians and Muslims.Around 10 percent of the population is Christian and the city is known for the number of churches it contains. Sikhs and Jains are also present in smaller numbers.

The most widely spoken language is Tamil, though there are also significantly large numbers of people speaking Telugu, Saurashtrian, Kannada and Malayalam. English is also well understood and spoken in business and educational instituitons.

The city has a multi-cultural society with a sizeable presence of Tamil, English, Marathi, Telugu, Hindi, Malayalam and Urdu-speaking population. The city projects a calm outlook and is considered to be friendly toward tourists. One may experience typical Anglo-Indian, Andhra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu cuisines here. In addition to Pongal, the Thamizhar Thirunaal, Ugadi, Holi,Ramzaan,Bakareed & Onam are festivals celebrated by their respective communities retaining their cultural roots.

People living in Trichy have a rich ancient cultural heritage. The city served as the centre of fine arts since sangam literature periods. Uraiyur, the old head and name of the city, was the capital of early Cholas. Here lived a number of great Tamil Scholars and contributed to the Tamil literature.

There are several theories as the origin of the city’s name. One is that Tiruchirapalli was named after the three-headed demon Trishira (or “Chira”) who performed penance at the Shiva temple in the city and obtained favors. The city was therefore named after the demon. Another theory states that since there are three peaks in the area, which are occupied by Shiva, Parvati and Vinayaka, the name Tri-Shikharam or Tirisirapuram arose.

Perhaps Tiruchirappalli is a shortened form of THIRU sri(CHI) RAnganathan PALLI, reflecting the sleeping posture of Lord Ranganatha in Srirangam.The name Tiruchirappali is the combination of three words Thiru + Chira + Palli, meaning the ‘School Chira’. In Thayumanavar Temple in Rock fort, the pictures depict that there was a saint called ‘Chira’, who established a school (‘Palli’ in Tamil) near that area and taught. Hence the name Chira Palli or Tiruchirappalli, Tiru is a honoric prefic for the saint Chira.